Friday, May 22, 2020
International Governance Problem, Terrorism, the Role of the US in the International System Free Essay Example, 1000 words
Terrorism may be defined as a form of warfare that involves the spread of terror in the minds of the civilian population of the enemy as a weapon. This is a popular form of warfare in many parts of the world and is mostly employed by weaker countries and groups against stronger ones. Terrorists have often justified their actions using a variety of reasons. These involve liberty for a certain group, religion, an oppressive regime and so on and so forth. The variety of reasons that are laid out can be seen as proof of the spread of the phenomenon. These reasons may not always be real; however, they succeed in attracting people, especially youth, to the cause. The reasons are in most cases, a fa ade to delude youth into joining these movements. Terrorism may be defined as a form of warfare that involves the spread of terror in the minds of the civilian population of the enemy as a weapon. This is a popular form of warfare in many parts of the world and is mostly employed by weaker cou ntries and groups against stronger ones. We will write a custom essay sample on International Governance Problem, Terrorism, the Role of the US in the International System or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page Since terrorists mostly adopt guerrilla methods of warfare, it is difficult to use massive force to tackle it. This may also prove to be counterproductive. A combination of force and efforts to improve the quality of living in areas where youth are recruited to become terrorists would produce the best results and also build confidence among the suffering civilian population. Question # 4: What are NGO s? Are they important to the international global community? What is soft power and how do they rely on soft power to their benefit? NGOs (Non-governmental Organizations) are organizations that mostly work with funding from donations from people who are interested in the causes that these organizations support. These organizations are mostly involved in activities that seek to make the society a better place to live in. They mostly have an ideology or a cause which they fight for actively. Climate change, animal welfare and awareness regarding certain diseases are among many, the causes that are actively advocated by NGOs around the world. The visibility that these causes receive in the public depends to a great extent, on the work that is done by these organizations and thus is important to the international global community since the issues that these organizations work for are those that need to be highlighted for the benefit of the international community.
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Arthur Miller said about women, Ã¢â¬Å"I like the company of women. Life is boring without themÃ¢â¬ (guardian.co.uk). The company that Miller believes women provide becomes an important aspect in the decisions he makes in his adulthood. During his adulthood, decided to engage in short-lived relationships and marry three different women. Quickly after college, Miller married his college girlfriend, Mary Grace Slattery, and started a family with her. Soon afterwards, Miller met and immediately connected with iconic Marilyn Monroe. He later decided to leave his wife of six years and two children to marry Monroe. After being together for two years, Miller decided to divorce the suicidal Marilyn Monroe. After his decision to leave Monroe, MillerÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation for the subjugation and objectification he treats women with is apparent in the lesson he teaches Biff about women. Willy remembers this lesson in the beginning of his first flashba ck, emphasizing the importance the lesson has on WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s life. After hearing about BiffÃ¢â¬â¢s interaction with women, Willy tells Biff, Ã¢â¬Å"Just wanna be careful with those girls, BiffÃ¢â¬ ¦. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t make any promisesÃ¢â¬ ¦. Because a girl, yÃ¢â¬â¢know, they always believe what you tellÃ¢â¬â¢em, and youÃ¢â¬â¢re very young, Biff, youÃ¢â¬â¢re too young to be talking seriously to girlsÃ¢â¬ (16). WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s incentive for teaching Biff this lesson is to inform Biff about the seriousness girls believe relationships are with men, so Willy informs Biff to stay away from these relationships. WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings reflect his objectifying view of women because he encourages short-lived relationships without the consideration of the feelings a woman may feel through the lack of commitment in the relationships. Not only does Willy objectify women by not considering the feelings they may have for certain actions, he also subordinates Linda through his att empts to assert his dominance. Within the first few moments of the play, WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s subordinate view towards Linda becomes known. Returning home from work, Willy is exhausted. Linda, feeling Willy needs to eat after a long day of work, convinces Willy to eat a sandwich she would prepare for him. When Willy notices the cheese he normally eats replaced by a new
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(28) " quality of private sector\." Education is the run manner of scholar on where he can confront the challenges of the universe every bit good as the society. It plays a critical function to put moral, societal and economic criterions of any state and has a really strong consequence on ideas, believes and planning of future constabularies of a state. Education is a state edifice and globally inter-related activity that unlocks the door to modernisation. We will write a custom essay sample on The Formal Education System Of Pakistan Education Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Education is the right of every kid and it is the duty of the State to supply educational installations to each and every kid. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 ( as cited in National Education Policy, 1998-2010 ) provinces, Ã¢â¬Å" Everyone has the right to instruction Ã¢â¬ . The quality instruction is a necessary and inevitable agent for alteration as instruction is a procedure of civilisation and development. Recent grounds of a significant nexus between quality of schooling and single productiveness suggests that, from an economic efficiency position, quality facets of instruction deserve attending. Harmonizing to the Imran ( 2011 ) , the construct of quality in every field is complex in nature, elements, constituents, and in every regard. Quality is the most respectable but the slipperiest term in the field of instruction. Sometimes it is used in appraising sense, for illustration as a graduated table of goodness. Sometimes it is implied to seek some alone features. The quality in instruction refers to the criterion of direction, educational installations, course of study, methods of instruction, pupils, exanimation system, learning staff etc. Secondary instruction holds cardinal place in an educational system of every state, as it is a terminal phase for most of pupils and it besides serves as a linkage between simple phase and higher instruction. As it provides input for higher instruction and hence quality of higher instruction is dependent upon secondary instruction ( AIOU, 1997 ) . Secondary instruction ( IXXII ) is an of import sub-sector of the full educational system. It provides the in-between degree work force for the economic system on one manus and on the other it acts as a feeder for the higher degree of instruction. Higher instruction, which produces quality professionals in different Fieldss, is based on the quality of secondary instruction. Therefore, this degree of instruction demands to be revamped in such a manner that it may fix immature work forces and adult females for the chase of higher instruction every bit good as may besides fix them to set in their practical lives meaningfully and fruitfully ( GOP, 1998 ) Developed states have economic and political stability due to their organized construction for instruction. On the other manus, quality of instruction is hapless at all degrees in developing and under developed states. Developing states like Pakistan need proper alterations in their educational systems harmonizing to the demands of their society and to accomplish their national aims. The criterion of instruction or quality of instruction is really low in Pakistan. Without bettering quality of instruction, we can non maintain gait with the modern epoch. Keeping this issue in position it was the demand of the twenty-four hours to compare the quality of secondary school instruction in public and in private managed schools to the factual place. Iqbal ( 1987 ) reported that pupils in developing states have a low average degree of accomplishment compared to industrial states and their public presentation shows a much greater fluctuation around the mean. Harmonizing to a study of the World Bank ( 1999 ) , the chief things which authoritiess can make to better the quality of instruction are puting criterions, back uping inputs to better, accomplishments, following flexible schemes for the acquisition and usage of inputs, and supervising public presentation. By and large the stairss are non taken because of the weight of the bing instruction hurrying and direction patterns. Learning procedure requires five inputs: the pupil with larning capableness, capable or information to be transferred, teacher holding bid on the topic, clip for acquisition, and tools for learning and acquisition. Secondary instruction holds a cardinal place as it is the terminal phase for the bulk of pupils. The largest figure of educated work force in Pakistan is available at this phase. The economic experts believe the secondary instruction to be a anchor of the economic system while the sociologists consider it is an effectual arm of societal reforms. It can be said that the secondary instruction is strongly related with the economic advancement and societal public assistance of the state ( Ali, 1970 ) . Two chief sectors working side by side in the field of secondary instruction are private and authorities sector in Pakistan. National Education Policy ( 1979 ) identified that private sector plays an of import function in the development of instruction in a state. It helps both in the qualitative betterment and enlargement. Private sector bears a good trade of outgos burden on this of import societal cause even in the most advanced states. In a state like Pakistan where the population growing rate is about 3 per centum, yearly and merely approximately 20 per centum of the bing kids are in the secondary schools, the support of the private sector is severely needed to portion this immense load. Government entirely can non construct and run all the schools required for this intent Aims of the survey This survey seeks to compare the quality of instruction of public and private schools of Gujranwala and the aims of survey were as: To compare the consequences of their pupils who appeared in boards Ã¢â¬Ë scrutiny. To compare the quality of instruction in footings of physical installations and substructure qualities. To compare the ability of instructors. To compare their fee and salary construction. To compare their educational procedures. Significance of the survey Quality instruction includes iÃâ Learners, Environments, Content, Processes and Outcomes ( UNICEF, 2000 ) . Government sector is unable to suit the demands of quickly turning population. No 1 can deny the importance of private sector. Different surveies have highlighted the lacking quality of private sector. You read "The Formal Education System Of Pakistan Education Essay" in category "Essay examples" This survey endeavors to place the quality of larning environment and substructure in public and private schools. The consequences of this survey will be huge aid to the parents, pupils and general populace in the designation of the quality of public and private schools. This survey will besides be imperative for contrivers and policy shapers to heighten the quality of instruction and supply footing for reforms in instruction to get the better of all failings of public and private schools by integrating all the superior facets of both sectors. Problem statement The research worker aims to pull the comparing the criterions of public and private secondary schools of Gujranwala in footings of quality of instruction. Research Questions or Hypothesis Q1: How can we compare quality of instruction in footings of quality of physical installations and substructure? Q2: What is the difference of fee construction of public and private schools? Q3: What is the difference of salary bundle of the instructors of public and private schools? Q4: What is the difference of making of instructors of public and private schools? Q 5: What is the difference of difference of occupation term of office of public and private schools? Q6: What is the difference of making of principals of public and private schools? Q7: What is the difference of professional making of instructors and principals of public and private schools? Chapter II LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, a elaborate reappraisal of accessible literature on the quality of secondary instruction in Pakistan has been presented along with a critical reappraisal of the related research has besides been presented at the terminal. Role of Education Education is a powerful drive force which drives mental, physical, ideological and moral readying of an person, so at the same clip it ease them to hold full consciousness of an instrument for their religious development along with the material fulfilment of human existences. With- in the context of Islamic Ã¢â¬â perceptual experience, instruction is an instrument for developing the attitude of persons in conformity with the value of righteousness which helps to construct a sound Islamic society ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1998 ) . Education plays an of import function in human resource development as it increases the end product, competency of persons and produces adept work force that is capable of taking the economic development. Importance of Education for human resource development does non necessitate any justification. The developed states give highest precedence to instruction ; same is the instance with the developing states. The fundamental law of Pakistan defines instruction as one of the cardinal rights of a citizen every bit good as constitutional committedness of the authorities accepts to supply entree to instruction to every citizen ( Govt. of Pakistan, 2000 ) . Formal Education System of Pakistan Ã¢â¬Å" The Government of Pakistan shall supply free and mandatory instruction to maximal kids of the province. It might be determined by jurisprudence. Ã¢â¬ ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1972 ) . The intent of instruction is to extinguish the poorness and to better the societal behaviour. Education enhances the societal and ethical development. In formal instruction system, there are figure of phases. Pre-schooling The age-group for the pre-schooling is 3 to 5 old ages ( before one category, in Public schools Kachi category and in private schools. Play group /nursery/ homework ) . Primary Schooling The age-group for primary is 5 to 9 old ages ( Class 1 to 5 ) . Middle Schooling The age-group is 10 to 12years ( Class 6 to 8 ) . Secondary Education Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education [ BISE ] conducts the scrutiny ( Class 9 A ; 10 ) . Higher Secondary/Intermediate Education BISE awards the certification of Higher Secondary School Education ( HSSC ) ( Class 11 A ; 12 ) . Higher Education Four old ages instruction after Higher Secondary Education is considered as higher instruction. Two old ages for Bachelor Ã¢â¬Ës grade and farther 2 old ages for Master Ã¢â¬Ës grade. BS awards is besides equal to this grade. M. Phil and PhD plans are besides farther promotion after the completion of maestro grade. Academy of Educational Planning and Management ( 2010-11 ) reported the elaborate analysis of instruction system in Pakistan. Beginning: Academy of Educational Planning and Management, Govt. of Pakistan ( 2010 ) Figure 2.1: Structure of instruction Sector in Pakistan Education system of Pakistan is comprised of 270,825 establishments and is easing 40,926,661 pupils with the aid of 1,507,100 instructors. The system is composed of 194,151 public establishments and 76,674 private establishments. The public sector is functioning 26.63 million pupils to finish their instruction while the staying 13.96 million pupils are in private sector of instruction ( AEPM, 2010-11 ) . Importance of Secondary Education It is a true fact that fate of a state is shaped in the schoolrooms which implies that instruction is the chief beginning of advancement and development. It can be said without any vacillation that instruction can be largely responsible for the hereafter of Pakistan. Through instruction, state edifice procedure for the hereafter citizens of the state can take topographic point. As shortly the instruction molds pupils, state will be molded. From this point of position, a batch of duties lie with the educationalist for quality instruction. Therefore, the instruction must be qualitative so that the pupils may develop necessary cognition, attitude and accomplishments to execute their responsibilities efficaciously. It is in this context that quality instruction becomes the most of import component to heighten the quality of life in any state. It is so worthwhile to raise some issues in this respect and think of their solution ( AEPM, 2010-11 ) . In the earlier period of Pakistan, the highest precedences were literacy and numeracy in the schools. But subsequently, personal growing with the communicating accomplishment, accomplishment for societal life, problem-solving accomplishment and co-ordination of physical and mental accomplishments got attending and importance by the society. Schools contribute its function in a vivacious manner through the course of study. Secondary schools develop the ability of logical thinking, proper usage of linguistic communication, societal and emotional stability in the pupils. Secondary instruction plays a major function to bring forth realistic and adept pupils. Secondary instruction in all over the universe recognized as an of import degree. The quality of higher instruction is depended upon the quality of this phase. This is the important age of adolescence for young person ( AEPM, 2010-11 ) . In Italy higher secondary schools ware called Ã¢â¬Å" tribunal schools Ã¢â¬ . In England these types of schools were named Ã¢â¬Å" Grammar Schools Ã¢â¬ in1510.In USA foremost junior Ã¢â¬Å" Inter montage Ã¢â¬ came into being in California in 1907. In Pakistan, secondary instruction consists of four categories IX to XII. These are called secondary and higher secondary. In Pakistan higher secondary schools were established in 1954-55 ( Shahzad, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to the National Education Policy ( 1979 ) , the instruction system consists of three degrees as: Elementary Education: I to VIII Secondary Education: IX to XII Higher Education: Thirteen and so on ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1979 ) . Five Year Plans and Secondary Education Eight Five Old ages programs were presented by Government of Pakistan for the improvement of instruction in Pakistan. The First Five-Year Plan ( 1955-60 ) Harmonizing to the First Five-Year Plan ( 1955-60 ) , the chief aims of secondary instruction were to present diversified classs in commercialism, agribusiness and proficient topics, to better the quality and to increase the figure of secondary schools. With the aid of repeat of history and political orientation of Pakistan, character edifice can be possible at secondary degree. Mathematicss and scientific discipline are mandatory topics for person Ã¢â¬Ës calling. 15 schools will be upgraded to high degree. 75 new public schools will be opened. Grants-in-aid will be given to 100 privateschools.500 center and 100 high schools will be improved by adding scientific discipline classs. Registration in high schools increased from 0.109 million in 1955 to 0.149 million in 1960 ( Memon, 1986 ) .In this program the more accent on the measure instead than quality. The Second Five Year Plan ( 1960-65 ) The chief aims of the 2nd five twelvemonth program are integrating of in-between categories in higher secondary schools, variegation of classs, counsel coders, gap of residential schools, and increase of registration of secondary instruction ( Iqbal, 1993 ) . During the Plan 160 high schools were opened with all physical installations. 103 in-between schools were up-graded to high schools. Harmonizing to Hussain ( 2003 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" the plan for secondary instruction proposed in the program will increase the registration by 430.000 pupils at this degree. Ã¢â¬ The program shapers emphasized on measure merely and cipher was concerned about the quality of instruction provided to the pupils. The Third Five-Year Plan ( 1965-70 ) Iqbal ( 1993 ) defines the aims of the 3rd five twelvemonth program. The chief aims of secondary instruction are in-between phase would be mandatory, development of educational installations, upgrading of in-between schools to high schools, accent on scientific discipline and mathematics, to bring forth adept state, and alter the course of study from general instruction to development of agricultural, commercial and administrative accomplishments. Policy shaper did non concentrate the quality of instruction. Student Ã¢â¬Ës registration was the Centre of attending. Non- Plan Period ( 1970-78 ) Harmonizing to the Iqbal ( 1993 ) that during non-plan period, the chief aims of secondary instruction were to contract down the difference between schools with the aid of comprehensive course of study, to accomplish an registration ratio of 40:60 between scientific discipline and humanistic disciplines programmes and consolidation of go outing secondary schools. Harmonizing to Govt. of Pakistan ( 1970 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" At the high phase ( Class IX and X ) registration is proposed to be increased by: 35 million against an registration of 77 million at the terminal of 3rd Plan. Ã¢â¬ Fifth Five-Year Plan ( 1978-83 ) The 5th program is really of import in the respect of secondary instruction. There was a outstanding alteration in instruction of measure to quality. Curricula reform aimed at add-on of occupation orient preparation in secondary instruction. 195 Science research labs were constructed. The program provides the agro- proficient classs in 874 schools ( Memon, 1986 ) . Care and betterment of installations in all secondary schools would be mandatory. Although the necessity and importance of secondary instruction was accepted in all stakeholders, but subsequently decision makers neglected the said steps. The Sixth Five-Year Plan ( 1983-88 ) Education is really necessary for the development of a society. Without instruction, no 1 has of all time been uplift himself and neÃ¢â¬â¢er assist supply economically benefits to his state. In harmonizing to 6th program Mathematics, Urdu, Islamiyat, Pakistan Studies and Science topics were the mandatory topics. Particular focal point on mathematics and scientific discipline was indispensable for all pupils at secondary instruction ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1983 ) . Measure of high schools would be increased to 5530 and 1073 in-between schools to be up-graded ( Memon, 1986 ) . The Seventh Five-Year Plan ( 1988-93 ) The instruction system suffers from critical status. Forty per centum of the kids do non hold entree to instruction. Harmonizing to Govt. of Pakistan ( 1988 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" The 7th program scheme was to increase the literacy rate through betterment and enlargement of primary instruction every bit good as to actuate the private sector to play an active function. While it was estimated that the literacy rate will lift to about 40 per centum by 1992-93, the substructure created during the 7th program was expected to give a literacy rate of 80 per centum by terminal of the century. Ã¢â¬ The 7th program will be spread out the secondary instruction installations. The course of study at secondary degree will be changed. For the betterment of quality of instruction in secondary schools, Bachelor of Education ( B.Ed. ) grade holder instructors will be appointed. A little inn for pupils will be provided to secondary schools. One theoretical account school for male childs and one for misss will be launched in each territory for the betterment of quality ( Hussain, 2003 ) . Eighth Five Year Plan ( 1993-98 ) Education is cardinal right of every kid. To carry through the demand of measure, schools ignored the quality and a big figure of educational establishments were opened without proper substructure. Harmonizing to Govt. of Pakistan ( 1993 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Facilities for secondary instruction will be extended to absorb the increased end product from primary schools. For this intent, about 2.4 million extra seats in categories VI to X will be created by upgrading primary and in-between schools, set uping new high schools and adding schoolrooms in the bing schools. Construction of extra schoolrooms and betterment of the bing edifices of schools will besides be carried out. In urban countries, 2nd displacement will be introduced in secondary schools wherever executable. Ã¢â¬ Private sector will be appreciated for the partnership to raise the registration at the secondary degree. Curriculum will be revised for better quality. Science laboratories will be provided with better-trained instructors ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1993 ) . Hussain ( 2003 ) evaluated that Ã¢â¬Å" The 8th national five twelvemonth program will promote in spread of quality educational establishments to the distant countries of the state. Till the terminal of the Eighth program, each territory will hold a theoretical account school for male childs and each division will hold such an establishment for misss in the populace or private sector. Private sector will be encouraged to set up the quality instruction establishments. Government will set up theoretical account schools merely in territories where such establishments do non be under public or private sector Ã¢â¬ National Education Policies in Pakistan Secondary instruction was discussed in all National Policies of Pakistan. Report of Commission on National Education ( 1959 ) On 30th December, 1958 the Government of Pakistan appointed a committee. The map of this committee is to analyse all the old studies and all on-going educational motions of the state. The committee recognized secondary instruction as a separate academic unit. The committee besides suggested that the secondary instruction should be divided into three phases ( 6 to 12 ) . Urdu, scientific discipline and mathematics should be taught as mandatory topics. Consequences should be complied on the public presentation of the pupils. Science labs and libraries should be provided in all secondary schools ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1959 ) . The Education Policy ( 1972-1980 ) On 15th March, 1972 the president of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto presented the Educational policy 1972-1980. He expressed that the instruction system was rendered by the pick of the harvest in Pakistan. The authorities allocated really low budget for the instruction. The intent of instruction should bring forth the state with spiritual positions, traditions and civilization. Education system divided into four phases of primary secondary, college and university. Harmonizing to Memon ( 1986 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Secondary Education should non be abstract enterprise but must associate to the employment chances. The secondary instruction may supply for progressive integrating of general and proficient instruction. The registration in humanistic disciplines topics may be restricted to the bing degree and important addition should be made in scientific discipline and agro proficient instruction Ã¢â¬ National Education Policy, 1979 Secondary instruction was recognized as a terminal phase of pupils in the National Education Policy, 1979. The quality of higher instruction is based on the quality of secondary instruction. Elementary, secondary and university instruction are three degrees of Pakistan Ã¢â¬Ës instruction system s. Physical installations such as scientific discipline labs, and libraries would be provided to the secondary schools. Curriculum should be upgraded. Mathematicss would be mandatory capable. One 1000 center schools will be upgraded to high schools and 200 new schools would be opened. New instructors would be appointed ( Ghaffar, 2003 ) . Board of Intermediate and Secondary would be held the scrutiny system at secondary degree. Estimated needed budget was Rs. 8,073 million for secondary instruction ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1979 ) . National Education Policy 1998-2010 In the position of National Education Policy 1998-2010, secondary instruction has played important function in the whole instruction system. It enhances the work force for the economic system and bring forth feeder the higher degrees of instruction. The quality of higher instruction is based upon the quality of secondary instruction ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1998 ) . The policy shapers had pointed out some failing in the secondary instruction such as: No attractive force for the investor. Unplanned enlargement and irrational distribution of schools. Being of scientific discipline and mathematics instructors had non been valued. Technical and vocational instruction at secondary degree remained a controversial issue. Physical installations and text editions were deficient. The undermentioned stairss were identified in the policy for the accomplishment of the aims of secondary instruction in the state: New theoretical account secondary school would be opened. Definite career at secondary degree would be introduced. Revision of course of study would be compulsory. Multiple text books would be introduced at secondary degree. In-service and pre-service instructors developing programmes would be arranged. Project method of learning would be initiated at secondary degree. Education service committee would be established Salary constructions of instructors would be based on making. Education card would be provided to destitute pupils ( Ghaffar, 2003 ) . The secondary degree input rate is 32 per centum which will be raised to 48 per centum. Harmonizing to Govt. of Pakistan ( 1998 ) , Ã¢â¬Å" Course of study at secondary phase will be based on two rules. First, at it will supply a compulsory nucleus of topics give every student the cognition utile for a underdeveloped society. Second, it will include extra topics and developing to fix the pupils of a definite calling. Curricula for secondary phase ( IX- XII ) shall be revised with a position to excite job resolution, independent thought and in the visible radiation of other aims outlined above. National Plan of Action 2001-2005 Technical instruction was offered in Matriculation as capable. Its chief intent was to fix pupils for the practical life. After finishing their secondary instruction, they could take the work. National Plan of Action [ NPA ] had mark to set up 1,100 proficient high schools in the state. The chief aims of NPA were to emphasis on instruction of adult females, to heighten engagement of society and to advance the quality instruction. Quality betterment and school effectivity had been given cardinal importance. The chief quality inputs were besides pointed out in the National Plan of Action 2001-2005. National Education Assessment System ( NEAS ) was introduced ( Govt. of Pakistan, 2003 ) . National Education Policy 2009 The reviewed procedure for the National Education Policy 1998-2010 was shaped in 2005 named Ã¢â¬Å" White Paper Ã¢â¬ . This White Paper became the footing of New Policy and finalized in March 2007.The secondary school system prepares immature people for life. Supplying accomplishments to the labour market and supplying input to the higher instruction are two of import functions of secondary instruction. Access at secondary schools in Pakistan is low in comparing to other states. Average ratio of secondary to primary school is 1: 6 in Pakistan, but in different parts of the state, it is 1:13 ( Govt. of Pakistan, 2009 ) . Following stairss will be taken for the betterment of secondary instruction in Pakistan: Provision shall be expanded specially in those locations where the ratio of Secondary schools is low. Student fiscal support shall be increased. Students shall present more student-centre teaching methods. Handiness of reding installations for the pupils. Life Skills-Based Education ( LSBE ) shall be promoted. How to cite The Formal Education System Of Pakistan Education Essay, Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
Of Mice and Man In many pieces of literature authors discuss human potential. In the novel Of Mice And Men, John Steinbeck Illustrates human potential and its effects on Lennie Crooks and George. Steinbeck suggests humans have the natural potential to seek happiness although the potential can be fatal or harmful. Although Lennie does not have the potential to be smart, Lennie has the potential to be a hard worker. However, Lennie's strength did not work with him and the result was fatal. Lennie is an extremely large man who had the strength of a bull. With the use of his strength, he was great worker but did not understand how strong he was. George alone than most pairs can( Steinbeck 34). Through his size and his enormous amount of strength Lennie could out work the other men of the ranch by himself. Through the use of Lennie's strength he became a great worker who knew nothing more than to work. Lennie uses his potential to work hard, but does not understand how strong he is. Without George, Lennie does not understand what to do. Lennie gets frightened and uses his strength to hold on to objects. Lennie is just like a child. He will do what ever George tells him to: Curely was flopping like a fish on a line, and his closed fist was lost in Lennie's hand. George slapped [Lennie] in the face again and again and still Lennie held on(63). Through Lennie's actions we can see that Lennie is very similar to a child. Lennie's first instinct when he is scared is to hold on. Just as a little kid holds on to its mom or dad when they become frightened, Lennie holds on to objects. Because of Lennie's low intelligence to understand his strength, he becomes frightened and kills Curley's wife and as a result, she ends up being killed by is potential: She took Lennie's hand and put it on her head... And then she cried angrily. Lennie's fingers closed on her hair and hung on. He shook her and her body flopped like a fish. And then she was still(91). Lennie did not understand his strength and became frightened, and once again just like just like a little child he held on. But he ended up breaking Curley's wife neck. As a result of his actions Lennie ended up dead. Lennie had an extremely great potential to use his strength and become a great worker. However his difficulty to understand his strength lead to his death. Unlike Lennie Crooks potential is his knowledge, and Crooks has the ability to use his knowledge to, try to escape the problems he has on the ranch. However Crooks falls back into a 1930s attitude and chooses to neglect his knowledge. Crooks also uses his knowledge to express his ideas and feelings to Lennie. Books ain't no good. A guy needs somebody to be near him... A guy goes nuts if ain't got nobody.(72) Crooks is proving that he is a very knowledgeable man When around others he may chooses to use his knowledge to express his ideas and become a stronger influence. Crooks uses his wisdom to express his ideas and feelings and leave a very strong impact. Crooks has the likelihood to use his knowledge, but how he uses his wisdom will determine his fate. ?I said s'pose George don't come back no more. S'pose he took a powder and just ain't coming back. What'll you do then?'... ?He won't do it' Lennie cried.... ?He'll come back tonight'---(71). Crooks is using his knowledge as a power trip on Lennie who does not understand what Crooks is saying. Crooks is doing this because he has never had a chance to use his knowledge in such way before, but is really abusing it. Crooks chooses to use his knowledge around Lennie. But when a higher authority is around Crooks chooses to ignore it for his own safety. ?Listen nigger', [Curley's wife] said, (y)ou know what I can do to you if you open your trap?'... Crooks seemed to grow smaller, and he pressed himself against the wall .... ?Yes ma'am', and his voice was toneless(80). When a higher authority is present Crooks chooses to ignore his knowledge because he is scared to speak out for fear of losing his job. Despite Crooks, knowledge he chooses to ignore it around higher authority, this ending up in a 1930's attitude with his knowledge going to waste. Unlike Lennie or Crooks George has the potential to be his own boss. If George does not work
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Journey to a Hate Free Millennium essays Journey to a Hate Free Millennium is a film that seeks solutions to the horrible hate crimes that have now become current events in our everyday lives. Through the portrayal of actual events, those who watch the film will gain insightful knowledge into the minds of individuals who choose to hate. They will feel and see the painful consequences of hate, and essentially find hope and a vision of a hate free millennium. The film consists of three hate crimes, those of which include the dreadful student shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado; the insidious death of James Byrd, Jr., an African-American man in Texas and the brutal beating death of Matthew Shepard, a gay college student in Wyoming. The speaker who presented Journey to a Hate Free Millennium was Greg Gion. Greg Gion's involvement with new light Media began as a volunteer assistant at the world premier of Journey to a Hate Free Millennium in October 1999. Since then, he has assisted New Light Media founder and producer, Brent Scarpo, in presentations across the country. Greg Gion brings more than 20 years of training and communication experience to his work as a presenter. He has been cited for his skill as a communicator, involving participants by weaving humor and warmth through his highly effective and interactive presentations. The presentation began with a documentary which described the horrors of hate crimes and how they existed all over the world. The film especially focused on the Matthew Shepard murder, the James Byrd murder, and the Columbine shooting. It showed Judy Shepard, the mother of Matthew Shepard who was brutally murdered for being gay. Greg Gion feels very strongly about hate crimes, which might explain why he presents these films all across America. He achieved his goal in informing those who doubted him, he made everyone realize the truth about hate crimes. The theory of functionalism was repres...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Cultural Appropriation in Music - Race Relations Cultural appropriation is nothing new. For years prominent whites have been accused of borrowing the fashions, music, and art forms of various cultural groups and popularizing them as their own. The music industry has been particularly hard hit by this practice. The 1991 film Ã¢â¬Å"The Five Heartbeats,Ã¢â¬ for example, which was based on the experiences of real African-American bands, depicts how music executives took the works of black musicians and repackaged them as the product of white artists. Due to cultural appropriation, Elvis Presley is widely regarded as being the Ã¢â¬Å"King of Rock and Roll,Ã¢â¬ despite the fact that his music was heavily influenced by black artists who never received credit for their contributions to the art form. In the early 1990s, white rapper Vanilla Ice topped the Billboard music charts when rappers as a whole remained on the fringes of popular culture. This piece explores how musicians with wide appeal today, such as Madonna, Gwen Stefani, M iley Cyrus, and Kreayshawn have been accused of cultural appropriation, borrowing heavily from black, Native American, and Asian traditions. Madonna The Italian-American superstar has been accused of borrowing from a host of cultures to sell her music, including gay culture, black culture, Indian culture, and Latin American cultures. Madonna may be the biggest culture vulture yet. In Ã¢â¬Å"Madonna: A Critical Analysis,Ã¢â¬ author JBNYC points out how the pop star wore Indian saris, bindis, and clothing during a 1998 photo shoot for Rolling Stone magazine and the following year participated in a geisha-inspired photo spread for HarperÃ¢â¬â¢s Bazaar magazine. Prior to this, Madonna borrowed from Latin American culture for her 1986 video Ã¢â¬Å"La Isla BonitaÃ¢â¬ andÃ from gay, black, and Latino culture for her 1990 video Ã¢â¬Å"Vogue.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Although one can argue that by taking on the personas of otherwise underrepresented cultures and giving them exposure to the masses, she is doing to world cultures like India, Japan, and Latin America, what she has done for feminism and gay culture,Ã¢â¬ JBNYC writes. Ã¢â¬Å"However, she made political statements about feminism, female sexuality, and homosexuality about their ideological representations in the media. In the case of her Indian, Japanese, and Latino looks, she has made no political or cultural statements. Her use of these cultural artifacts is superficial and the consequence is great. She has further perpetuated the narrow and stereotypical representations of minorities in the media.Ã¢â¬ Gwen Stefani Singer Gwen Stefani faced criticism in 2005 and 2006 for appearing with a silent group of Asian-American women who accompanied her to promotional appearances and other events. Stefani called the women Ã¢â¬Å"Harajuku GirlsÃ¢â¬ after the women she encountered in the Harajuku district of Tokyo. During an interview with Entertainment Weekly, Stefani called the Ã¢â¬Å"Harajuku GirlsÃ¢â¬ an art project and said, Ã¢â¬Å"The truth is that I basically was saying how great that culture is.Ã¢â¬ Actress and comedienne Margaret Cho felt differently, calling the foursome a Ã¢â¬Å"minstrel show.Ã¢â¬ Salon writer Mihi Ahn agreed, criticizing Gwen Stefani for her cultural appropriation of Harajuku culture. Ahn wrote in 2005: Ã¢â¬Å"Stefani fawns over Harajuku style in her lyrics, but her appropriation of this subculture makes about as much sense as the Gap selling Anarchy T-shirts; sheÃ¢â¬â¢s swallowed a subversive youth culture in Japan and barfed up another image of submissive giggling Asian women. While aping a style thatÃ¢â¬â¢s supposed to be about individuality and personal expression, Stefani ends up being the only one who stands out.Ã¢â¬ In 2012, Stefani and her band No Doubt would face a backlash for their stereotypical cowboys and Indians video for their single Ã¢â¬Å"Looking Hot.Ã¢â¬ In the late 1990s, Stefani also routinely sported a bindi, a symbol Indian women wear, in her appearances with No Doubt. Kreayshawn When rapper KreayshawnÃ¢â¬â¢s single Ã¢â¬Å"Gucci, GucciÃ¢â¬ begin to earn buzz in 2011, a number of critics accused her of cultural appropriation. They argued Kreayshawn and her crew, known as the Ã¢â¬Å"White Girl Mob,Ã¢â¬ were acting out black stereotypes. Bene Viera, a writer for Clutch magazine, wrote off Kreayshawn as a rapper in 2011, in part, because of doubts about whether a Berkley Film School dropout could find her niche in hip-hop. In addition, Viera argued that Kreayshawn has mediocre skills as an MC. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s ironic how the white girl mimicking black culture has been viewed as quirky, cute, and interesting in the past,Ã¢â¬ Viera noted. Ã¢â¬Å"But sisters who fashionably rock bamboo earrings, gold nameplate necklaces, and blonde streaked weaves, will inevitably be considered Ã¢â¬ËghettoÃ¢â¬â¢ by society. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s equally problematic that every female emcee post Queen Latifah and MC Lyte who has had massive mainstream success all had to sell sex. Kreayshawn, on the other hand, is able to avoid an over-sexualized image because of her whiteness.Ã¢â¬ Miley Cyrus Former child star Miley Cyrus is best known for her starring role in the Disney Channel program Ã¢â¬Å"Hannah Montana,Ã¢â¬ which also featured her country music star father Billy Ray Cyrus. As a young adult, the younger Cyrus has taken pains to shed her Ã¢â¬Å"child starÃ¢â¬ image. In June 2013, Miley Cyrus released a new single, Ã¢â¬Å"We CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Stop.Ã¢â¬ During that time Cyrus earned press about the songÃ¢â¬â¢s allusions to drug use and made headlines after debuting a markedly Ã¢â¬Å"urbanÃ¢â¬ appearance and performing with rapper Juicy J on stage in Los Angeles. The public was shocked to see Miley Cyrus sport a grill with gold teeth and twerk (or booty pop) at the House of Blues with Juicy J. But CyrusÃ¢â¬â¢ image overhaul was a decidedly concerted move, with her music producers commenting that she wanted her new songs to Ã¢â¬Å"feel black.Ã¢â¬ Before long, Cyrus faced a wave of criticism from African Americans concerned that she was using black culture to advance her career, which many before her had done. Dodai Stewart of Jezebel.com asserts of Cyrus: Ã¢â¬Å"Miley seems to delight in Ã¢â¬ ¦twerking, popping the $$, bending at the waist and shaking her rump in the air. Fun. But basically, she, as a rich white woman, is Ã¢â¬ËplayingÃ¢â¬â¢ at being a minority specifically from a lower socio-economic level. Along with the gold grill and some hand gestures, Miley straight-up appropriates the accoutrements associated with certain black people on the fringes of society.Ã¢â¬
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Is Infinity Possible - Essay Example A mathematician just have to round off the figure in order to mark the end of the mathematical problem otherwise the sequence would be written to the length of an equator and still fails to end. These are some few examples that prove the existence of infinity. To conceptualize this in a thought, if everything in existence is put in a box and sealed tight, it means that a boundary has been created between what is inside the box and what is out side the box. In this line of thinking, one can possibly end up to a conclusion that all that is out side the box is a continuation of all that is inside the box be it space, solid, liquid or a gas. What is infinite therefore is that that can never be measured and ca never be traced to an origin. Religiously, the Almighty God can be logically viewed as infinite. This is because no matter how hard mankind can try to understand His origin, there will never be a definite answer (GoÃËkdeniz & Dilek p12). He is the Alfa and the Omega. He has always been there, is there and will always be there forever more. These words from the scripture suggest that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence is infinite; and never dies. Regardless of what the atheists and the theists think of this, the concept of infinity has been present ed. The quality of infinity is infinite and infinity therefore is the quality that is applicable to a number of infinite qualities. Think of space and beyond; it is endless and this is infinity; think of matter; think of levels of life forms in the universe and intelligence levels; think of the largest and the smallest thing that can ever be, and think of time. These are all forms that can only be traced to infinite dimensions proving that infinity does not only exist in numbers but exist in the physical realm as well (Cleqq p158). If only someone can prove of an existence that is beyond infinity or give a word that gives this extension a meaning,